For the first time in the world, casting production started with the discovery of bronze casting in Anatolia. Casting spread around the world through trade passing through Istanbul. The succession of copper alloys was discovered in the middle of the 4000s BC. Anatolia has been the cradle of all cultures as well as being the the oldest in casting.
It was determined that mining was carried out in Anatolia in 6000 BC in Çatal höyük excavation near Konya Cumra. Modern metallurgy was born in Anatolia. In the excavations in Alacahöyük (1937), bronze pieces from 2400 BC containing 9-17% tin were found. In the same excavation, a golden-grip dagger from 3000 BC was found.
In the excavations in Ankara-Karaali and Amasya-Gümüşköy districts in Tokat region, slag chambers ranging from 70,000 tons to 1.5 million tons were found, and it was determined from the slag analysis taken from here that very good casting was made in 1880 BC. The casting technique, which was previously used for the production of axes and other flat parts in one-piece open molds, was developed with the use of two or more-piece molds for the production of round parts. Since 2000, cores made of baked clay have been used to obtain internal cavities. In addition, it is seen that wax models are used in molding and the precision casting method, in which the mold cavity is formed when the wax melted by heating leaves the mold, is developed in the same centuries.
It is seen that the casting technique was developed very much especially in China starting from 1500 BC. The Chinese mastered the production of complex parts with multipartite molds. These techniques developed in the Middle and Far East reached the Mediterranean basin with wars and nomadic people and then Europe. It was determined from the historical documents that Urartu exported bronze products to Etruscans-Greece in Northern Italy in 900-600 BC. It is known that the casting technique of the Phrygians living in Anatolia in 700-550 BC was very high. The extraordinary improvement in today's human standard of living over the last 50 years is largely due to the development of methods that enable the mass and inexpensive production of engineering designs.
Engineers must acquire the necessary information to reach their intended design in the cheapest and most accurate way by recognizing the possibilities,advantages and limits of each production method.
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