How is Casting Done? What are the Types of Casting?
Döküm Süreçleri Photo

How is Casting Done? What are the Types of Casting?

Modern manufacturing methods, in which a new one is added every day, play an important role in the development of production technologies. However, there are some methods that, although technology develops, it maintains its indispensability with its advantages. Examples include casting techniques. Casting, which is one of the oldest manufacturing methods, ensures that iron and iron-alloyed products fully enter the desired shape. It also has the advantages of having a lower cost, enabling large volume processes and saving time. "How is casting done, what are the types?" We have compiled the answers to such questions for you.

What is Casting?

The process of melting the metal into a mold and turning it into the desired shape as a result of solidification is called casting, and the place where the process is performed is called the foundry. Iron alloys, steel scrap and various peak irons are melted in high-temperature arc, dome or induction furnaces. The molten metal mixture is shaped with the help of ceramic, sand or metal molds.

Although the definition seems short and easy, casting is a process that requires considerable attention and must be done by experts. Otherwise, it may cause occupational accidents and a decrease in casting quality may be observed if it is not done correctly.

How is Casting Done?

In the first stage of the casting process, iron and steel materials are melted under high temperature. It is then poured into molds designed using ceramic or sand materials for shaping. Although iron and metal materials are used in the foundation, all kinds of semi-fluid liquid materials can be processed in the foundry to bring them to the desired form. The forming molds used after the casting process are designed according to the shape of the material to be produced. The molds must be in accordance with the shape and properties of the material intended to be produced completely. Although the molds used for casting are generally designed from ceramic or sand materials, casting techniques such as casting in shell and gypsum molds can also be used. The mold is preferred for the production of the product intended to be designed in the highest quality. Some patterns can only be used once. These are preferred in casting alloys such as steel, iron, aluminum, titanium, magnesium, which can cause the mold to break down.

What are the Types of Casting?

Casting types differ according to the characteristics of the product to be designed. The most commonly used casting types are listed as follows with their advantages and disadvantages:

Permanent (Kokil) Casting

Permanent casting, which is used in the design of metal products, can be used more than once due to its durable structure. Due to this feature, it is less costly. High heat resistant special iron or steel materials are used in the production of permanent castings. If there is low heat during production, bronze materials can also be preferred in mold design.


  • The surface quality of the designed product is high.
  • It has a lower cost.
  • It is more suitable for mass production conditions.
  • It is suitable for the production of parts with a complex structure.


  • It is not suitable for metal castings that can melt at very high temperatures.
  • Since the mold cost is high, it can be expensive outside of mass production.

Pressurized Casting

Pressurized casting, which is a kind of metal casting, allows metal molds to be filled with the help of pressurized pistons.


  • Production is fast.
  • It facilitates the production of complex shaped parts.
  • Since production is provided by pressure, it facilitates the production of sensitive parts.


  • Casting dimensions are limited, it may not meet the expectations in the design of some products.
  • Piston and fully equipped pressure casting machines are highly priced.
  • Air entrapment can adversely affect production, so it is necessary to prevent air entrapment continuously. It is a type of casting that requires attention and extra care.

Shell Mold Casting

A hard shell is obtained using resin and sand. This hard shell covers and shapes the model desired to be produced.


  • Casting surfaces are smoother and smoother.
  • The procedures for the final shape of the produced part are few.
  • There is little work to be done to finalize the produced part.
  • Higher size production is provided compared to the sand mold.


  • It is limited in weight and size compared to other types of casting.
  • It may be more costly to design metal products.
  • It can be used one time.

Sand Mold Casting

One of the most preferred types of casting consists of sand molding, resin and sand mixture.


  • It can be used many times. The number of uses can be increased with water and additional materials.
  • Flexibility rate is high.
  • The cost is low.


  • The surface quality of the designed product may be low.
  • Dimensional precision is not very good.
  • Resistance and resistance to external factors are low.

Gypsum Mold Casting

A large part of the plaster casting used for shaping non-ferrous metals is designed using plaster material.


  • It facilitates the shaping of surfaces with a complex structure.
  • The surface smoothness of the designed product is at a good level.


  • The production process may take a little longer.
  • It is not suitable for long-term use and the production of very complex parts.

Precision Casting

It is a casting technique that uses molds made of high-temperature, shelled wax.


  • It is easier to check the mechanical properties of the produced parts.
  • Since the mold used in production is in one piece, it is not necessary to apply extra treatment to the produced part.
  • The surface quality of the designed part is high.


  • The cost is high.
  • Generally, the weight of the produced part is less than 5 kilograms.

Continuous Casting

Production is made using a two-way open mold. While the metals melted at high temperature are passed through the mold, water is kept in the outer part of the mold. Thus, the melt solidifies thanks to water and the piece has the desired shape.


  • The cost is low.
  • The cooling speed is under the control of the manufacturer. Shaping settings can be made.
  • The quality of the produced material and surface is high.
  • The risk of possible deterioration is preventable.


  • The production process requires attention.
  • The control of the cooling speed must be well maintained, it requires care.

Centrifugal Casting

The molds used during production rotate around an axis and the molten metal is placed in these molds and takes the desired shape. Since the molds rotate, they have centrifugal force and hence pressure. This pressure helps the molten metal to take the mold's inner shape.


  • The process takes place at lower temperatures.
  • The use of high pressure supports the production part to be more robust.


  • Some metals can become layers, making the process more difficult.
  • Holding furnaces may be required.
  • The dimensions and shapes of the products to be designed are limited.
  • Initial installation costs are high.

You can reach Kutes Metal, which stands out with its customer-oriented business approach, immediately for casting methods and processing solutions that will increase your company's efficiency.

Döküm Teknolojisinin Tarihçesi Card

History of Casting Technology

For the first time in the world, casting production started with the discovery of bronze casting in Anatolia. Casting spread around the world through trade passing through Istanbul.

Read More
Talaşlı İmalat Card

What are the chip formation methods?

Chip Formation became known with the wood industry in the 18th century and later became popular and widespread in the 20th century by being used in iron forming processes. There are different chip formation methods depending on the process to be applied, the shape to be given and the material to be used.

Read More
Güneş Enerjisi Panelleri Card

How Solar Panels Work?

Solar energy is one of the cleanest renewable energy sources that can be converted into electrical energy or thermal energy. Many countries around the world have extremely large resources in terms of solar energy use. Solar energy technologies offer highly economical and efficient solutions for commercial, industrial or individual uses.

Read More