What are the chip formation methods?
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What are the chip formation methods?

Chip Formation became known with the wood industry in the 18th century and later became popular and widespread in the 20th century by being used in iron forming processes. There are different chip formation methods depending on the process to be applied, the shape to be given and the material to be used.

What is Chip Formation?

In general, chip formation is the process of shaping by chipping a material. It is a manufacturing method made by lifting a layer of material from its surface with sharp tool parts in order to process a raw material in a determined shape and size. Parts separated from the surface of the base material are called chips. The tips used in shaping the material are called tools. Each operation is performed on machine tools. There are different machine tools according to the chip formation method. In today's modern technologies, these processes are carried out on CNC benches. The process applied in chip formation is also called abrasion and chipping.

Chip Formation Methods

A single chip formation method or multiple methods can be used for shaping a material. This depends on the process to be applied and the shape to be given to the material. The main chip formation methods are as follows:

  • Turning: It is generally used in the manufacture of cylindrical parts. For example, screws and bolts are among the parts produced by this method. The chipping process is applied by applying the rotation movement to the workpiece. Longitudinal turning along the length of the workpiece can be performed as well as transverse operation can be applied. The transverse process is also called face turning. The main operations performed with turning are grooving, threading, drilling, curving, angling, tapering, cutting pieces, knurling, internal and external turning. Shaping is performed using cutting tools suitable for the operation to be performed.
  • Milling: The part machined with cutting tools rotating around its own axis is a chipping process performed by keeping it stationary. In some operations, both the workpiece and the cutting tools can be mobile. Grooving, threading, hole augmentation, gradual or angular chip formation, gears, straight and curved surfaces are the main operations performed. Milling machines have two types: horizontal and vertical. Different milling cutters are used according to the process to be performed.
  • Planning and Shaper Use: Horizontal, vertical and angled chipping operations with linear cutting movement are called planing and shaping. They are both alike. The difference between them is that planing is done by moving the part forward and the cutting movement is realized by tools. In the shaper process, the reverse feed movement is made with the tool and the cutting movement is made with the part. Although the speed is low in this process, the length of the application area of the process offers more chipping advantages at once.
  • Hole Drilling: Drill presses are used in these operations. However, with the hole drilling apparatus, this process can also be performed on CNC lathes and milling machines according to the material to be processed. Spiral, blunt, perforated and stepped drills are used according to the application area. After the hole drilling process, reaming process is applied when needed to smooth the part. In addition, more than one drill type can be used depending on the type of operation to be performed.
  • Grinding: Chipping is performed with a grinding tool. It allows the grinding stones to remove excess on the workpiece surface by rotating and advancing movement. Profile, immersion, cylindrical and flat surface processes are the main methods performed by grinding. It is used in processes that require a small amount of chipping and on very hard surfaces.
  • Reaming: It is a correction process applied to obtain smoother and cleaner surfaces after the hole drilling process. There are two types of cylindrical and conical reaming.
  • Broaching: The method of chip removal performed with a cutting tool in the form of a linearly moving rod is called broaching. Both coarse and fine chipping can be done with this method. There are two types of internal and external broaching.
  • Honing: It is a low speed chipping process performed with coarse grained stones called honing stones with advance and rotation movement.
  • Lapping: It is applied on ground surfaces. This process is used to smooth the surface. It is a second process in parts that need to be processed precisely and finely.

What is the Difference of Chip Formation from Chipless Machining?

The manufacturing methods generally have varieties such as mechanical, physical and chemical. Machining methods with and without chipping fall into the type of mechanical production. However, there are differences between the two methods as a procedure. In Chip Formation, the forming process is carried out by chipping. In chipless machining, the materials are shaped while they are melted instead of the Chip Formation process. Both productions have different methods in themselves. In chipless machining without chips, methods such as casting, forging, cold or hot drawing, welding, riveting, soldering and melting are applied. In chipless machining, there is no change in material mass. In Chip Formation, there is abrasion from the surface, that is, the mass changes as a result of the process.

What are the Advantages of Chip Formation?

  • Chip Formation methods allow different materials to be processed. For this reason, all kinds of materials such as wood, metal and plastic can be processed with Chip Formation.
  • It is also used in the production of small parts because it can be shaped in the desired sizes.
  • It has the advantage of giving the material the desired geometric shape. Hole, screw, rounded and angled parts are realized by Chip Formation.
  • The flexibility it provides in the production of different sizes and shapes is advantageous in the processing of difficult parts.
  • Clean and smooth surfaces are obtained in Chip Formation.
  • The material can be shaped as desired, or the surfaces can be given the desired brightness.
  • Preparing the desired shape in digital environment eliminates the mold cost.
  • Another advantage of not requiring molds is the easy use of Chip Formation methods in cases where a small number of prototype products are required.
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